This article is about the use of the term New World Order
in conspiracy theory. For other uses, see New World Order
The reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States
The Latin phrase "novus ordo seclorum
", appearing on the reverse side of the Great Seal since 1782 and on the back of the U.S. one-dollar bill
since 1935, translates to "New Order of the Ages"
alludes to the beginning of an era where the United States of America is an independent nation-state; conspiracy theorists claim this is an allusion to the "New World Order".
As a conspiracy theory, the term New World Order or NWO refers to the emergence of a totalitarian world government.
The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a secretive power elite with a globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the
world through an authoritarian world government—which will replace sovereign nation-states—and an all-encompassing propaganda whose ideology hails
the establishment of the New World Order as the culmination of history's progress. Many influential historical and contemporary figures
have therefore been purported to be part of a cabal that operates through many front
organizations to orchestrate significant political and financial events, ranging from causing systemic crises to pushing through controversial policies, at both national and international levels, as steps in an ongoing plot to achieve world domination.
Before the early 1990s, New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures, primarily the militantly anti-government right and
secondarily that part of fundamentalist Christianity concerned with the end-time emergence
of the Antichrist. Skeptics
such as Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet observed that right-wing populist conspiracy theories about a New World Order had not only been embraced by many seekers of stigmatized
knowledge but had seeped into popular culture, thereby inaugurating a period during the late 20th and early 21st centuries in the United States where people are
actively preparing for apocalyptic millenarian scenarios. Those
political scientists are concerned that mass hysteria over New World Order conspiracy theories could eventually have devastating effects on American political life, ranging
from escalating lone-wolf terrorism to the rise to power of authoritarian ultranationalist demagogues.
History of the term
During the 20th century many politicians,
such as Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill, used the term "new world order" to refer to a new period of history characterised by a dramatic change in world political thought and in the balance of power after World War I and World War II. They all saw the period as an opportunity to implement idealistic proposals
for global governance in the sense of new collective efforts to address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, while always respecting the right of nations to self-determination. These proposals
led to the formation of international organizations (such as the UN in 1945 and NATO in 1949),
and international regimes (such as the Bretton Woods system (1944-1971) and the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, 1947-1994)), which were calculated both to maintain a balance of power in favor of the United States and to regularize cooperation between nations, in order to achieve
a peaceful phase of capitalism. These creations in particular and liberal
internationalism in general, however, were regularly criticized and opposed by American paleoconservative business
nationalists from the 1930s on.
these new international organizations and regimes in the aftermath of the two World Wars, but argued that they suffered from a democratic deficit and were therefore
inadequate not only to prevent another global war but to foster global
justice. The United Nations was designed in 1945 by US bankers and State Department planners, and was always intended to remain
a free association of sovereign nation-states, not a transition to democratic world government. Thus, activists around the globe formed a world
federalist movement, hoping in vain to create a "real" new world order.
British writer and futurist H. G. Wells went further than progressives in the 1940s, by appropriating and redefining the term "new world order" as a synonym for the establishment of a technocratic world state and of a planned economy. Despite the popularity of his ideas in some state-socialist circles,
Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to the intelligentsias who would ultimately
have to coordinate a Wellsian new world order.
During the Red Scare of 1947–1957, agitators of the American secular and Christian right,
influenced by the work of Canadian conspiracy theorist William Guy Carr, increasingly embraced and spread unfounded fears of Freemasons, Illuminati and Jews as
the alleged driving forces behind an "international communist conspiracy". The threat of "Godless communism", in the form of a state
atheistic and bureaucratic collectivist world government, demonized as
the "Red Menace", therefore became the focus of apocalypticmillenarian conspiracism. The Red Scare came to shape one of the core ideas of the political right in the United States, which is that liberals and progressives, with their welfare-state policies
and international cooperation programs such as foreign aid, supposedly contribute to a gradual process of collectivism that
will inevitably lead to nations being replaced with a communist one-world government.
Right-wing populist advocacy groups with a paleoconservative world-view,
such as the John Birch Society, disseminated a multitude of conspiracy theories in the 1960s claiming that the governments of both the United States and the Soviet Union were controlled by a cabal of corporate
internationalists, greedy bankers and corrupt politicians who were intent on using the U.N. as the vehicle to create a "One World Government". This right-wing anti-globalist conspiracism fuelled the Bircher campaign for US
withdrawal from the UN. American writer Mary M. Davison, in her 1966 booklet The Profound Revolution, traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the establishment of the US Federal
Reserve in 1913 by international bankers, whom she claimed later formed the Council on Foreign Relations in 1921 as a shadow government. At the time the booklet was published, many readers would have interpreted "international bankers" as a reference to a postulated "international
Jewish banking conspiracy" masterminded by the Rothschilds.
Claiming that the term "New World Order" is used by a secretive elite dedicated to the destruction of all national sovereignties, American writer Gary Allen—in his books None
Dare Call It Conspiracy (1971), Rockefeller: Campaigning for the New World Order (1974), and Say "No!" to the New World Order (1987)—articulated the anti-globalist theme of much current right-wing populist
conspiracism in the US. Thus, after the fall of communism in the early 1990s, the main demonized scapegoat of
the American far right shifted seamlessly from crypto-communists,
who plotted on behalf of the Red Menace, to globalists, plotting on behalf of the New World Order. The relatively painless nature of the shift was due to growing right-wing populist opposition
to corporate internationalism, but also in part to the basic underlying apocalyptic millenarian paradigm, which fed the Cold War (ca 1947-1991) and the witch-hunts of the McCarthy period (1950s).
In his speech, Toward a New World Order, delivered on September 11, 1990 during a joint session of the US Congress, President George H. W. Bush described his objectives for post-Cold War global governance in cooperation with post-Soviet
states. He stated:
The New York Times observed that progressives were denouncing this new world order as a rationalization of American imperial ambitions in the Middle East, while conservatives rejected
any new security arrangements altogether and fulminated about any possibility of a UN revival. However, Chip Berlet, an American investigative reporter specializing in the study of right-wing movements
in the US, writes:
American televangelist Pat
Robertson, with his 1991 best-selling book The New World Order, became the most prominent Christian popularizer of conspiracy
theories about recent American history. He describes a scenario where Wall Street, the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Bilderberg Group and the Trilateral Commission control the flow of events from behind
the scenes, nudging people constantly and covertly in the direction of world government for the Antichrist.
Observers note that the galvanizing of right-wing populist conspiracy theorists such as Linda Thompson, Mark
Koernke and Robert K. Spear into militancy led to the rise of the militia movement, which spread
its anti-government ideology through speeches at rallies and meetings, books and videotapes sold at gun
shows, shortwave and satellite radio, fax networks and computer bulletin boards. However,
it is overnight AM radio shows and viral propaganda on the Internet that have most effectively contributed to their extremist political
ideas about the New World Order finding their way into the previously apolitical literature of numerous Kennedy assassinologists, ufologists, lost land theorists and, most recently, occultists. From the mid–1990s on, the worldwide appeal of those subcultures transmitted New World Order conspiracism like a "mind
virus" to a large new audience of seekers of stigmatized knowledge.
Hollywood conspiracy-thriller television shows and films also played a role in introducing a vast popular audience to various fringe theories related to New World Order conspiracism—black helicopters, FEMA "concentration camps", etc.— theories which for decades previously were confined to radical
right-wing subcultures. The 1993–2002 television series The X-Files, the 1997 film Conspiracy
Theory and the 1998 film The X-Files: Fight the Future are often cited as notable examples.
Following the start of the 21st century, and specifically during the late-2000s
financial crisis, many politicians and pundits, such as Gordon Brown and Henry Kissinger, used the term
"new world order" in their advocacy for a comprehensive reform of the global
financial system and their calls for a "New Bretton Woods" taking into account emerging markets such as China and India. These declarations had the unintended consequence of providing fresh fodder for New World Order conspiracism, which culminated
in talk-show host Sean Hannity stating on his Fox News Channel program Hannity that the "conspiracy theorists were right". Progressive media-watchdog groups have repeatedly criticized Fox News in general and its opinion show Glenn Beck in particular for not only mainstreaming the New World Order conspiracy theories of the radical
right, but possibly agitating its lone wolves into action.
In 2009 American film directors Luke
Meyer and Andrew Neel released New World Order, a
critically acclaimed documentary film which explores the world of conspiracy theorists - such as American radio host Alex Jones - who consistently
expose and vigorously oppose what they perceive as an emerging New World Order. The growing dissemination and
popularity of conspiracy theories has also created an alliance between right-wing populist agitators (such as Alex Jones) and hip hop music's left-wing populist rappers (such
as KRS-One, Professor Griff of Public
Enemy and Immortal Technique), thus illustrating how anti-elitist conspiracism
can create unlikely political allies in efforts to oppose a political system.
There are numerous systemic conspiracy theories through which the concept of a New World Order is
viewed. The following is a list of the major ones in roughly chronological order:
Since the 19th century, many apocalyptic millennial Christian eschatologists, starting with John Nelson Darby, have predicted a globalist conspiracy
to impose a tyrannical New World Order governing structure as the fulfillment of prophecies about the "end
time" in the Bible, specifically in the Book of Ezekiel, the Book
of Daniel, the Olivet discourse found in the Synoptic
Gospels and the Book of Revelation. They
claim that people who have made a deal with the Devil to gain wealth and power have become pawns in a supernatural chess game to move humanity into accepting
a utopian world government that rests on the spiritual foundations of a syncretic-messianic world religion, which will later reveal itself to be a dystopian world empire that imposes the imperial cult of an “Unholy Trinity” of Satan, the Antichrist and
the False Prophet. In many contemporary Christian conspiracy theories, the False Prophet will be either the last pope of
the Catholic Church (groomed and installed by an Alta Vendita or Jesuit conspiracy), a guru from the New
Age movement, or even the leader of an elite fundamentalist Christian organization like the Fellowship, while the Antichrist will be either the President
of the European Union, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, or even the Caliph of a pan-Islamic state.
Some of the most vocal critics of end-time conspiracy theories come from within Christianity. In 1993, historian Bruce Barron wrote a stern rebuke of apocalyptic Christian conspiracism
in the Christian Research Journal, when reviewing Robertson's 1991 book The
New World Order.Another critique can be found in historian Gregory S. Camp's 1997
book Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Times Paranoia. Religious studies
scholar Richard T. Hughes argues that "New World Order" rhetoric libels the Christian faith, since the "New World Order" as defined by Christian conspiracy theorists has no basis in the Bible whatsoever. Furthermore, he argues that not only is this idea unbiblical,
it is positively anti-biblical and fundamentally anti-Christian, because by misinterpreting key passages in the Book of Revelation, it turns a comforting
message about the coming kingdom of God into one of fear, panic and despair in the face of an allegedly approaching one-world government. Progressive Christians,
such as preacher-theologian Peter J. Gomes, caution Christian fundamentalists that
a "spirit of fear" can distort scripture and history through dangerously combining biblical
literalism, apocalyptic timetables, demonization and oppressive
Camp warns of the "very real danger that Christians could pick up some extra spiritual baggage" by credulously embracing conspiracy theories. They
therefore call on Christians who indulge in conspiracism to repent.
Freemasonry is one
of the world's oldest secular fraternal organizations and arose during late 16th–early 17th century Britain. Over the years a number of allegations and conspiracy theories
have been directed towards Freemasonry, including the allegation that Freemasons have a hidden political agenda and are conspiring to bring about a New World Order,
a world government organized according to Masonic principles and/or governed only by Freemasons.
The esoteric nature of Masonic symbolism and rites led to Freemasons first being accused of secretly practising Satanism in
the late 18th century. The original allegation of a conspiracy within Freemasonry to subvert religions and governments in order to take over the world traces back to Scottish author John
Robison, whose reactionary conspiracy theories crossed the Atlantic and influenced outbreaks of Protestant anti-Masonry in
the United States during the 19th century. In the 1890s, French writer Léo Taxil wrote a series of pamphlets and books denouncing Freemasonry and charging their lodges with worshiping Lucifer as
the Supreme Being and Great Architect of the Universe.
Despite the fact that Taxil admitted that his claims were all a hoax, they were and still are believed and repeated by numerous conspiracy theorists and had a huge influence on
subsequent anti-Masonic claims about Freemasonry.
Some conspiracy theorists
eventually speculated that some Founding Fathers of the United States, such as George
Washington and Benjamin Franklin, were having Masonic sacred geometric designs
interwoven into American society, particularly in the Great Seal of the United States, the United States one-dollar bill, the architecture of National Mall
landmarks and the streets and highways of Washington, D.C., as part of a master plan to create the first "Masonic
government" as a model for the coming New World Order.
Freemasons rebut these claims of a Masonic conspiracy. Freemasonry, which promotes rationalism, places no power in occult symbols themselves,
and it is not a part of its principles to view the drawing of symbols, no matter how large, as an act of consolidating or controlling power. Furthermore,
there is no published information establishing the Masonic membership of the men responsible for the design of the Great Seal. While conspiracy theorists assert that there are elements of Masonic influence on the Great
Seal of the United States, and that these elements were intentionally or unintentionally used because the creators were familiar with the symbols,in
fact, the all-seeing Eye of Providence and the unfinished pyramid were symbols used as much outside Masonic lodges as within them in the late 18th century, therefore
the designers were drawing from common esoteric symbols. The
Latin phrase "novus ordo seclorum", appearing on the reverse side of the Great Seal since 1782 and on the back of the one-dollar bill since 1935, translates
to "New Order of the Ages", and alludes to the beginning of an era where the
United States of America is an independent nation-state; it is often mistranslated by conspiracy theorists as "New World Order".
Although the European continental branch of Freemasonry has organizations that allow political discussion within their Masonic Lodges and a few
operate as active political lobbies for secularist causes, as exemplified by the Grand
Orient of France, Masonic researcher Trevor W. McKeown argues:
The Order of the Illuminati was an Enlightenment-age secret
society founded by university professor Adam Weishaupt on 1 May 1776, in Upper Bavaria,
Germany. The movement consisted of advocates of freethought, secularism, liberalism, republicanism, and gender
equality, recruited from the German Masonic Lodges, who sought to teach rationalism through mystery schools. In 1785, the order was infiltrated, broken up and suppressed by the government agents of Charles
Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, in his preemptive campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow the Bavarian monarchy and
its state religion, Roman Catholicism.
In the late 18th century, reactionary conspiracy theorists, such as Scottish physicist John
Robison and French Jesuit priest Augustin Barruel, began speculating
that the Illuminati had survived their suppression and become the masterminds behind the French Revolution and the Reign
of Terror. The Illuminati were accused of being subversives who were attempting to secretly orchestrate a revolutionary
wave in Europe and the rest of the world in order to spread the most radical ideas
and movements of the Enlightenment—anti-clericalism, anti-monarchism,
and anti-patriarchalism—and to create a world noocracy and cult of reason. During the 19th century, fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of the European ruling classes,
and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in 1848 the very revolutions they sought to prevent.
During the interwar period of the 20th century, fascist propagandists, such as British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster and
American socialite Edith Starr Miller, not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which served
the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both finance capitalism and Soviet
communism in order to divide and rule the world. American evangelist Gerald
Burton Winrod and other conspiracy theorists within the fundamentalist Christian movement in the United States—which
emerged in the 1910s as a backlash against the principles of Enlightenment secular humanism, modernism,
and liberalism—became the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in the U.S.. Right-wing populists, such as members of the John Birch Society, subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities (Skull
and Bones), gentlemen's clubs (Bohemian Club), and think tanks (Council
on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission) of the American
upper class are front organizations of the Illuminati, which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government.
There is no evidence that the Bavarian Illuminati survived its suppression in 1785.
The Protocols of the
Elders of Zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is an antisemitic
canard, originally published in Russian in 1903, alleging a Judeo-Masonic
conspiracy to achieve world domination. The text purports to be the minutes of the secret meetings of a cabal of Jewish masterminds, which has co-opted Freemasonry and is plotting to rule the world on behalf of all Jews because they believe themselves to be the chosen
people of God. The Protocols incorporate many of the core conspiracist themes outlined in
the Robison and Barruel attacks on the Freemasons,
and overlay them with antisemitic allegations about anti-Tsarist movements in Russia. The Protocols reflect themes similar to more general critiques of Enlightenment liberalism by conservative aristocrats
who support monarchies and state religions. The interpretation intended by the publication
of The Protocols is that if one peels away the layers of the Masonic conspiracy, past the Illuminati,
one finds the rotten Jewish core.
Numerous polemicists, such as Irish journalist Philip Graves in a 1921 article in The
Times, and British academic Norman Cohn in his 1967 book Warrant
for Genocide, have proven The Protocols to be both a hoax and a clear case of plagiarism. There is general agreement that Russian-French writer and political
activist Matvei Golovinski fabricated the text for Okhrana, the secret police of the Russian Empire, as a work of counter-revolutionary propaganda prior to the 1905 Russian Revolution, by plagiarizing, almost word
for word in some passages, from The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu,
a 19th-century satire against Napoleon III of France written by French political satirist and Legitimist militant Maurice Joly.
Responsible for feeding many antisemitic and anti-Masonic mass hysterias of the
20th century, The Protocols has been influential in the development of some conspiracy theories, including some New World Order theories, and appears repeatedly in certain contemporary conspiracy literature. For example, the authors of the 1982 controversial book The
Holy Blood and the Holy Grail concluded that The Protocols was the most persuasive piece of evidence for the existence and activities of the Priory
of Sion. They speculated that this secret society was working behind the scenes to establish a theocratic "United
States of Europe". Politically and religiously unified through the imperial cult of a MerovingianGreat Monarch—supposedly descended from a Jesus bloodline—who
occupies both the throne of Europe and the Holy See, this "Holy European Empire" would become the hyperpower of
the 21st century. Although the Priory
of Sion itself has been exhaustively debunked by journalists and scholars as a hoax, some apocalyptic millenarian Christian
eschatologists who believe The Protocols is authentic became convinced that the Priory of Sion was a fulfillment of prophecies found
in the Book of Revelation and further proof of an anti-Christian conspiracy
of epic proportions signaling the imminence of a New World Order.
Skeptics argue that the current gambit of contemporary conspiracy theorists who use The Protocols is to claim that they "really" come from some group other than the Jews, such as fallen
angels or alien invaders. Although it is hard to determine whether the conspiracy-minded actually believe
this or are simply trying to sanitize a discredited text, skeptics argue that it does not make much difference, since they leave the actual, antisemitic text unchanged. The result is to give The Protocols credibility and circulation.
During the second half of Britain's "imperial century" between 1815 and 1914, English-born South African businessman, mining
magnate and politician Cecil Rhodes advocated the British Empire reannexing
the United States of America and reforming itself into an "Imperial Federation" to bring about a hyperpower and
lasting world peace. In his first will, written in 1877 at the age of 23, he expressed his wish to fund a secret
society (known as the Society of the Elect) that would advance this goal:
Magnate and colonist Cecil Rhodes
advocated a secret society which would make
Britain control the Earth
In 1890, thirteen years after "his now famous will," Rhodes elaborated on the same idea: establishment of "England everywhere," which would "ultimately lead to the cessation of all wars, and one language throughout
the world." "The only thing feasible to carry out this idea is a secret society gradually absorbing the wealth of the world ["and human minds of the higher order"] to be devoted to such an object."
Rhodes also concentrated on the Rhodes Scholarship, which had British statesman Alfred
Milner as one of its trustees. Established in 1902, the original goal of the trust fund was to foster peace among the great powers by creating
a sense of fraternity and a shared world view among future British, American, and German leaders by having enabled them to study for free at the University of Oxford.
Milner and British official Lionel
George Curtis were the architects of the Round Table movement, a network of organizations promoting closer union between Britain and its self-governing colonies. To this end, Curtis founded the Royal
Institute of International Affairs in June 1919 and, with his 1938 book The Commonwealth of God, began advocating for the creation of an imperial federation that eventually reannexes the U.S., which would be presented to Protestant churches as being the work of the Christian God to
elicit their support. The Commonwealth
of Nations was created in 1949 but it would only be a free association of independent states rather than the powerful imperial federation imagined by Rhodes, Milner and Curtis.
on Foreign Relations began in 1917 with a group of New York academics who were asked by President Woodrow Wilson to offer options for the foreign policy of the United States in the interwar period.
Originally envisioned as a group of American and British scholars and diplomats, some of whom belonging to the Round Table movement, it was a subsequent group of 108 New York financiers, manufacturers and international lawyers organized in June 1918 by Nobel
Peace Prize recipient and U.S. secretary of state Elihu Root, that became the Council on Foreign Relations on 29 July 1921. The first of the council’s projects was a quarterly
journal launched in September 1922, called Foreign Affairs. The Trilateral Commission was founded in July 1973, at the initiative of American banker David
Rockefeller, who was chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time. It is a private organization established to foster closer cooperation among the United States, Europe and Japan. The Trilateral Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to
the Council on Foreign Relations.
In the 1960s, right-wing populist individuals and groups with a paleoconservative worldview,
such as members of the John Birch Society, were the first to combine and spread a business
nationalist critique of corporate internationalists networked through think tanks such as the Council on Foreign Relations with a grand conspiracy theory casting
them as front organizations for the Round Table of the "Anglo-American Establishment",
which are financed by an "international banking cabal" that has supposedly been plotting from the late 19th century on to impose an oligarchic new world order through a global financial system. Anti-globalist conspiracy theorists therefore fear that international
bankers are planning to eventually subvert the independence of the U.S. by subordinating national sovereignty to a strengthened Bank for International Settlements.
The research findings of historian Carroll Quigley, author of the 1966 book Tragedy
and Hope, are taken by both conspiracy theorists of the American Old Right (W.
Cleon Skousen) and New Left (Carl Oglesby) to substantiate this view, even though Quigley argued
that the Establishment is not involved in a plot to implement a one-world government but rather British and American benevolent imperialism driven by the
mutual interests of economic elites in the United Kingdom and the United States. Quigley also argued that, although the Round
Table still exists today, its position in influencing the policies of world leaders has been much reduced from its heyday during World War I and slowly waned after the
end of World War II and the Suez Crisis. Today the Round Table is largely a ginger group, designed to consider and gradually influence the policies of the Commonwealth of
Nations, but faces strong opposition. Furthermore, in American society after 1965, the problem, according to Quigley, was that no elite was in charge and acting responsibly.
Larry McDonald, the second president of the John Birch Society and a conservative Democratic member of the United
States House of Representatives who represented the 7th congressional district of Georgia, wrote a foreword for Allen's
1976 book The Rockefeller File, wherein he stated:
In his 2002 autobiography Memoirs, David Rockefeller wrote:
Barkun argues that this statement is partly facetious (the claim of "conspiracy" and "treason") and partly serious—the desire to encourage trilateral cooperation among the U.S., Europe, and Japan, for example—an ideal that used to be a hallmark of the internationalist wing of the Republican Party (known as "Rockefeller Republicans" in honor of Nelson Rockefeller) when there was an internationalist
wing. The statement, however, is taken at face value and widely cited by conspiracy theorists as proof that the Council on Foreign Relations uses its role as the brain trust of
American presidents, senators and representatives to manipulate them into supporting a New World Order in the form of a one-world government.
In a 13 November 2007 interview with Canadian journalist Benjamin Fulford, Rockefeller countered:
Some American social critics, such as Laurence H. Shoup, argue that the Council on Foreign Relations is an "imperial brain
trust" which has, for decades, played a central behind-the-scenes role in shaping U.S. foreign policy choices for the post-World War II international order and the Cold War by
determining what options show up on the agenda and what options do not even make it to the table; others, such as G. William Domhoff,
argue that it is in fact a mere policy discussion forum which provides the business input to U.S. foreign policy planning. Domhoff argues that "[i]t has nearly 3,000 members, far too many
for secret plans to be kept within the group. All the council does is sponsor discussion groups, debates and speakers. As far as being secretive, it issues annual reports and allows access to its historical archives." However, all these critics agree that
"[h]istorical studies of the CFR show that it has a very different role in the overall power structure than what is claimed by conspiracy theorists."
The Open Conspiracy
In his 1928 book The
Open Conspiracy British writer and futurist H. G. Wells promoted cosmopolitanism and
offered blueprints for a world revolution and world brain to establish a technocratic world state and planned economy. Wells warned, however, in his 1940 book The
New World Order that:
Wells's books were influential in giving a second meaning to the term "new world order", which would only be used by state socialist supporters and anti-communist opponents for generations to come. However, despite
the popularity and notoriety of his ideas, Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to intelligentsias who
would, ultimately, have to coordinate the Wellsian new world order.
British neo-Theosophical occultist Alice Bailey, one of the founders
of the so-called New Age movement, prophesied in 1940 the eventual victory of the Allies
of World War II over the Axis powers (which occurred in 1945) and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. She saw a federal
world government as the culmination of Wells' Open Conspiracy but favorably argued that it would be synarchist because
it was guided by the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, intent on preparing humanity for the mystical second coming of Christ, and the dawning of the Age of Aquarius. According to Bailey, a group of ascended masters called the Great White
Brotherhood works on the "inner planes" to oversee the transition to the New World Order but, for now, the members of this Spiritual Hierarchy are only known to a few occult scientists, with whom they communicate telepathically,
but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases, there will be an "Externalization of the Hierarchy" and everyone will know of their presence on Earth.
writings, along with American writer Marilyn Ferguson's 1980 book The
Aquarian Conspiracy, contributed to conspiracy theorists of the Christian right viewing the New Age movement as the "false
religion" that would supersede Christianity in a New World Order. Skeptics
argue that the term "New Age movement" is a misnomer, generally used by conspiracy theorists as a catch-all rubric for any new religious movement that
is not fundamentalist Christian. By this logic, anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully anti-Christian.
since the first decade of the 21st century, New World Order conspiracism is increasingly being embraced and propagandized by New Age occultists, who are people
bored by rationalism and drawn to stigmatized knowledge—such
as alternative medicine, astrology, quantum
mysticism, spiritualism, and theosophy. Thus, New Age conspiracy theorists, such as the makers of documentary films like Esoteric Agenda, claim that globalists who plot
on behalf of the New World Order are simply misusing occultism for Machiavellian ends, such as adopting 21 December 2012 as the exact date for the establishment
of the New World Order for the purpose of taking advantage of the growing 2012 phenomenon, which has its origins in the fringe Mayanist theories
of New Age writers José Argüelles, Terence McKenna,
and Daniel Pinchbeck.
Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common fallacious premises. First, any widely
accepted belief must necessarily be false. Second, stigmatized knowledge—what the Establishment spurns—must be true. The result is a large, self-referential network in which, for example, some UFO religionists promote
anti-Jewish phobias while some antisemites practice Peruvian shamanism.
American writer Jim Marrs
that former Nazis and their sympathizers have been continuing Nazi policies worldwide, especially in the United States
Conspiracy theorists often use the term "Fourth
Reich" simply as a pejorative synonym for the "New World Order" to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany's Third Reich.
However, some conspiracy theorists use the research findings of American journalist Edwin Black, author of the 2009 book Nazi Nexus, to claim that some American
corporations and philanthropic foundations—whose complicity was pivotal to the Third Reich's war effort, Nazi eugenics and the Holocaust—are
now conspiring to build a Fourth Reich .
Conspiracy theorists, such as American writer Jim Marrs, claim that some ex-Nazis,
who survived the fall of the Greater German Reich, along with sympathizers in the United States and elsewhere, given haven by organizations like ODESSA and Die Spinne, have been working behind the scenes since the end of World War II to enact at least some
principles of Nazism (e.g., militarism, imperialism, widespread spying on citizens, corporatism, the use of propaganda to manufacture a national consensus) into culture, government, and business worldwide, but primarily in the U.S. They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U.S. with technological principles from Nazi
UFOs, and the acquisition and creation of conglomerates by ex-Nazis and their sympathizers after the war, in both Europe and
This neo-Nazi conspiracy
is said to be animated by an "Iron Dream" in which the American Empire, having thwarted the Judeo-Masonic
conspiracy and overthrown its Zionist Occupation Government, gradually establishes a Fourth Reich formerly known
as the "Western Imperium"—a pan-Aryan world empire modeled after Adolf Hitler's New Order—which reverses the "decline
of the West" and ushers a golden age of white supremacy.
Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neo-Nazis on American society, and point out that political repression at
home and imperialism abroad have a long history in the United States that predates the 20th century. Some political scientists, such as Sheldon
Wolin, have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status
have paved the way in the U.S. for the emergence of an inverted totalitarianism which contradicts many principles of Nazism.
Since the late 1970s, extraterrestrials from other habitable planets or parallel dimensions (such as "Greys") and intraterrestrials from Hollow Earth (such as "Reptilians") have been included in the New World Order conspiracy, in more or less
dominant roles, as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and Milton William Cooper, and British writer David
The common theme in these conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades, centuries or millennia, but a government cover-up enforced
by "Men in Black" has shielded the public from knowledge of a secret alien
invasion. Motivated by speciesism and imperialism, these aliens have been and are secretly
manipulating developments and changes in human society in order to more efficiently control and exploit human beings. In some theories, alien infiltrators have shapeshifted into human form and move freely throughout human society,
even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental, corporate, and religious institutions, and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world. A
mythical covert government agency of the United States code-named Majestic 12 is often imagined being the shadow
government which collaborates with the alien occupation and permits alien
abductions, in exchange for assistance in the development and testing of military "flying saucers" at Area
51, in order for United States armed forces to achieve full-spectrum
Skeptics, who adhere to the psychosocial hypothesis for unidentified flying objects,
argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and UFO conspiracy theory is a product of not only the era's widespread mistrust of governments
and the popularity of the extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs but of the far
right and ufologists actually joining forces. Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that, if conspirators plotting to rule
the world are believed to be aliens, traditional human scapegoats (Freemasons, Illuminati, Jews, etc.) are downgraded or exonerated.
Brave New World
Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy
theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories. They speculate that the global power elite are reactionary modernists pursuing a transhumanist agenda to develop and
use human enhancement technologies in order to become a "posthuman ruling caste", while change accelerates toward a technological
singularity—a theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them. Conspiracy theorists
fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World-like dystopia—a
"Brave New World Order"—or the extinction of the human species.
Democratic transhumanists, such as American sociologist James
Hughes, counter that many influential members of the United States Establishment are bioconservatives strongly opposed to human enhancement, as demonstrated by President Bush's
Council on Bioethics's proposed international treaty prohibiting human cloning and germline
engineering. Furthermore, he argues that conspiracy theorists underestimate how fringe the transhumanist movement really is.
Just as there are several overlapping or conflicting theories among conspiracists about the nature of the New World Order, so are there several beliefs
about how its architects and planners will implement it:
Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually,
citing the formation of the U.S. Federal Reserve System in 1913; the League of Nations in 1919; the International
Monetary Fund in 1944; the United Nations in 1945; the World Bank in 1945; the World
Health Organization in 1948; the European Union and the euro currency in 1993; the World Trade Organization in 1998; the African Union in 2002; and the Union of South American Nations in
2008 as major milestones.
An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American right-wing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and
the amero currency, proposed by the Council on Foreign
Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada, will be the next milestone in the implementation
of the New World Order. The theory holds that a group of shadowy and mostly nameless international elites are planning to replace the federal
government of the United States with a transnational government. Therefore, conspiracy theorists believe the borders between Mexico, Canada and the United
States are in the process of being erased, covertly, by a group of globalists whose ultimate goal is to replace national governments in Washington, D.C., Ottawa and Mexico City with a European-style political union and a bloated E.U.-style bureaucracy.
Skeptics argue that the North American Union exists only as a proposal contained in
one of a thousand academic and/or policy papers published each year that advocate all manner of idealistic but ultimately unrealistic approaches to social, economic and political problems. Most of these are passed around in their own circles and eventually
filed away and forgotten by junior staffers in congressional offices. Some of these papers, however, become touchstones for the conspiracy-minded and form the basis of all kinds of unfounded xenophobic fears especially during times of economic anxiety.
For example, in March 2009, as a result of the late-2000s financial crisis, the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation pressed for urgent consideration of a new international reserve currency and the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development proposed greatly expanding the I.M.F.'s special drawing rights. Conspiracy theorists fear these proposals are
a call for the U.S. to adopt a single global currency for a New World Order.
Judging that both national governments and global institutions have proven ineffective in addressing worldwide
problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, some political scientists critical of New World Order conspiracism, such as Mark C. Partridge, argue that regionalism will
be the major force in the coming decades, pockets of power around regional centers: Western Europe around Brussels, the Western Hemisphere around Washington, D.C., East Asia around Beijing, and Eastern Europe around Moscow. As such, the E.U., the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the G-20 will
likely become more influential as time progresses. The question then is not whether global governance is gradually emerging, but rather how will these regional powers interact with one another.
populist conspiracy theorists, especially those who joined the militia movement in the United States, speculate that the New World
Order will be implemented through a dramatic coup d'état by a "secret
team", using black helicopters, in the U.S. and other nation-states to bring about a totalitarian world
government controlled by the United Nations and enforced by troops of foreign U.N.
peacekeepers. Following the Rex 84 and Operation Garden Plot plans, this
military coup would involve the suspension of the Constitution, the imposition of martial
law, and the appointment of military commanders to head state and local governments and to detain dissidents.
These conspiracy theorists, who are all strong believers in a right to keep and bear arms, are extremely fearful that the passing of any gun control legislation
will be later followed by the abolishment of personal gun ownership and a campaign of gun confiscation, and that the refugee camps of emergency management agencies such
as FEMA will be used for the internment of
suspected subversives, making little effort to distinguish true threats to the New World Order from pacifist dissidents.
Before year 2000 some survivalists wrongly
believed this process would be set in motion by the predicted Y2K problem causing societal
collapse. Since many left-wing and right-wing conspiracy theorists believe that the September 11 attacks were a false flag operation carried out by the United
States intelligence community, as part of a strategy of tension to justify political
repression at home and preemptive war abroad, they have become convinced that a more catastrophic terrorist
incident will be responsible for triggering Executive Directive 51 in order to complete the transition to a police state.
Skeptics argue that unfounded fears
about an imminent or eventual gun ban, military coup, internment, or U.N. invasion and occupation are rooted in the siege mentality of the American militia movement
but also an apocalyptic millenarianism which provides a basic narrative within
the political right in the U.S., claiming that the idealized society (i.e., constitutional republic, Jeffersonian democracy, "Christian nation", "white nation") is thwarted by subversive conspiracies of liberal secular humanists who want "Big Government" and globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order.
Conspiracy theorists concerned with surveillance abuse believe that the New World Order is being implemented by the cult of intelligence at the core of the surveillance-industrial
complex through mass surveillance and the use of Social
Security numbers, the bar-coding of retail goods with Universal Product Code markings,
and, most recently, RFID tagging by microchip
Claiming that corporations and government are planning to track every
move of consumers and citizens with RFID as the latest step toward a 1984-like surveillance
state, consumer privacy advocates, such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre, have
become Christian conspiracy theorists who believe spychips must be resisted because they argue that modern database and communications technologies, coupled with point
of sale data-capture equipment and sophisticated ID and authentication systems,
now make it possible to require a biometrically associated number or mark to make purchases. They fear that the ability to implement such a system closely resembles the Number of the Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation.
In January 2002, the Information
Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter asymmetric threats to national
security. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by the United States Congress in 2003. The second source of controversy involved IAO’s original logo, which depicted the "all-seeing" Eye of Providence atop of a pyramid looking down over the globe, accompanied by the Latin phrase scientia
est potentia (knowledge is power). Although DARPA eventually removed the logo from its website, it left a lasting impression on privacy advocates. It
also inflamed conspiracy theorists, who misinterpret the "eye and pyramid" as the Masonic symbol of the Illuminati, an 18th-century secret society they speculate continues to exist and is plotting on behalf
of a New World Order.
American historian Richard Landes, who specializes in the history of apocalypticism and
was co-founder and director of the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, argues that new and emerging technologies often
trigger alarmism among millenarians and even the introduction of Gutenberg's printing press in 1436 caused waves of apocalyptic thinking. The Year 2000 problem,
bar codes and Social Security numbers all triggered end-time warnings which either proved to be false or simply were no longer taken seriously once the public became accustomed
to these technological changes. Civil libertarians argue that the privatization of surveillance and the rise
of the surveillance-industrial complex in the United States does raise legitimate concerns about the erosion of privacy. However,
skeptics of mass surveillance conspiracism caution that such concerns should be disentangled from secular paranoia about Big Brother or
religious hysteria about the Antichrist.
Conspiracy theorists of the Christian right, starting with British revisionist historian Nesta Helen Webster, believe there is an ancient occult conspiracy—started by the first mystagogues of Gnosticism and perpetuated by their alleged esoteric successors, such as the Kabbalists, Cathars, Knights Templar, Hermeticists, Rosicrucians, Freemasons, and, ultimately, the Illuminati—which seeks to subvert the Judeo-Christian foundations of the Western world and implement the New World Order through a one-world religion
that prepares the masses to embrace the imperial cult of the Antichrist. More broadly, they speculate that globalists who plot on behalf of a New World Order are directed by occult agencies of
some sort: unknown superiors, spiritual
hierarchies, demons, fallen angels and/or Lucifer.
They believe that these conspirators use the power of occult sciences (numerology), symbols (Eye of
Providence), rituals (Masonic degrees), monuments (National
Mall landmarks), buildings (Manitoba Legislative Building)
and facilities (Denver International Airport) to advance their plot to rule the world. 
For example, in June 1979, an unknown benefactor under the pseudonym "R. C. Christian" had a huge granite megalith built in the U.S. state of Georgia, which acts like a compass, calendar, and clock. A message comprising ten guides is inscribed on the occult structure in many languages to serve as instructions for survivors of a doomsday event to establish a more enlightened and sustainable civilization than the one which was destroyed. The "Georgia
Guidestones" have subsequently become a spiritual and political Rorschach test onto which any number of ideas can be imposed. Some New Agers and neo-pagans revere it as a ley-line power nexus while a few conspiracy theorists are convinced that they
are engraved with the New World Order's anti-Christian "Ten Commandments." Should the Guidestones survive for centuries as their creators intended, many more meanings could
arise, equally unrelated to the designer’s original intention.
argue that the demonization of Western esotericism by conspiracy theorists
is rooted in religious intolerance but also in the same moral panics that
have fueled witch trials in the Early Modern period, and satanic
ritual abuse allegations in the United States.
Conspiracy theorists believe that the New World Order will also be implemented through the use of human
population control in order to more easily monitor and control the movement of individuals. The
means range from stopping the growth of human societies through reproductive health and family
planning programs, which promote abstinence, contraception and abortion, or intentionally reducing the bulk of the world population through genocides by mongering unnecessary wars, through plagues by engineering emergent viruses and tainting vaccines, and through environmental
disasters by controlling the weather (HAARP, chemtrails), etc. Conspiracy theorists argue that globalists plotting on behalf of a New World Order are neo-Malthusians who engage in overpopulation and climate
change alarmism in order to create public support for coercive population control and ultimately world government. Agenda 21 is condemned as "reconcentrating" people
into urban areas and depopulating rural ones, even generating a dystopian novel by Glenn Beck where single-family homes are a distant memory.
Skeptics argue that fears
of population control can be traced back to the traumatic legacy of the eugenics movement's "war against the weak" in the United States during the first decades of the 20th century
but also the Second Red Scare in the U.S. during the late 1940s and 1950s, and to a lesser extent in the 1960s, when activists on the far right of American politics routinely opposed public health programs,
notably water fluoridation, mass vaccination and mental health services, by asserting they were all part of a far-reaching plot to impose a socialist or communist regime. Their
views were influenced by opposition to a number of major social and political changes that had happened in recent years: the growth of internationalism,
particularly the United Nations and its programs; the introduction of social welfare provisions,
particularly the various programs established by the New Deal; and government efforts to reduce inequalities in the social
structure of the U.S..
Social critics accuse governments, corporations, and the mass media of being involved in the manufacturing
of a national consensus and, paradoxically, a culture of fear due to the potential for increased social
control that a mistrustful and mutually fearing population might offer to those in power. The worst fear of some conspiracy theorists, however, is that the New World Order will be implemented through the use of mind
control—a broad range of tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his or her own thinking, behavior, emotions, or decisions. These tactics are said to include everything from Manchurian
candidate-style brainwashing of sleeper agents (Project MKULTRA, "Project Monarch") to engineering psychological operations (water fluoridation, subliminal advertising, "Silent Sound Spread Spectrum", MEDUSA) and parapsychological operations (Stargate
Project) to influence the masses. The concept of wearing a tin foil hat for protection from such threats has become a popular stereotype and term of derision; the phrase serves as a byword for paranoia and
is associated with conspiracy theorists.
Skeptics argue that the paranoia behind a conspiracy theorist's obsession with mind control, population control, occultism, surveillance
abuse, Big Business, Big Government, and globalization arises from a combination of two factors, when he or she: 1) holds strong individualist values
and 2) lacks power. The first attribute refers to people who care deeply about an individual's right to make their own choices and direct their
own lives without interference or obligations to a larger system (like the government), but combine this with a sense of powerlessness in one's own life, and one gets what some psychologists call "agency panic,"
intense anxiety about an apparent loss of autonomy to outside forces or regulators. When fervent individualists feel that they cannot exercise their independence, they experience a crisis and assume that larger forces are to blame for usurping this freedom.
According to Domhoff, many people seem to believe that the United States is ruled
from behind the scenes by a conspiratorial elite with secret desires, i.e., by a small secretive group that wants to change the government system or put the country under the
control of a world government. In the past the conspirators were usually said to be crypto-communists who
were intent upon bringing the United States under a common world government with the Soviet Union, but the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 undercut that theory. Domhoff notes that most conspiracy theorists changed their focus
to the United Nations as the likely controlling force in a New World Order, an idea which is undermined by the powerlessness of the U.N. and the unwillingness of even
moderates within the American Establishment to give it anything but a limited role.
Although skeptical of New World Order conspiracism, political scientist David Rothkopf argues, in the 2008 book Superclass:
The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making, that the world population of 6 billion people is governed by an elite of 6,000 individuals. Until the late 20th century, governments of the great
powers provided most of the superclass, accompanied by a few heads of international movements (i.e., the Pope of the Catholic
Church) and entrepreneurs (Rothschilds, Rockefellers). According to Rothkopf,
in the early 21st century, economic clout—fueled by the explosive expansion of international trade, travel and communication—rules; the nation-state's
power has diminished shrinking politicians to minority power broker status; leaders in international business, finance and the defense
industry not only dominate the superclass, they move freely into high positions in their nations' governments and back to private life largely beyond the notice of elected legislatures (including the U.S. Congress), which remain abysmally ignorant of affairs
beyond their borders. He asserts that the superclass' disproportionate influence over national policy is constructive but always self-interested, and that across the world, few object to corruption and oppressive governments provided they can do business in
Viewing the history of the world as the history of warfare between secret societies, conspiracy theorists go further than Rothkopf, and other scholars who have studied the global power
elite, by claiming that established upper-class families with "old money" who founded and finance the Bilderberg
Group, Bohemian Club, Club of Rome, Council
on Foreign Relations, Rhodes Trust, Skull and Bones, Trilateral Commission, and similar think tanks and private clubs, are illuminated conspirators plotting
to impose a totalitarian New World Order—the implementation of an authoritarian world
government controlled by the United Nations and a global central bank, which maintains political power through the financialization of the economy, regulation and restriction of speech through the concentration of media ownership, mass surveillance,
widespread use of state terrorism, and an all-encompassing propaganda that creates
a cult of personality around a puppet world leader and ideologizes world government
as the culmination of history's progress.
Marxists, who are skeptical of right-wing populist conspiracy theories, also accuse
the global power elite of not having the best interests of all at heart, and many intergovernmental organizations of suffering from a democratic deficit, but they
argue that the superclass are plutocrats only interested in brazenly imposing a neoliberal or neoconservative new world order—the implementation of global
capitalism through economic and military coercion to protect the interests of transnational
corporations—which systematically undermines the possibility of a socialist one-world government. Arguing that the world is in the middle of a transition from the American
Empire to the rule of a global ruling class that has emerged from within the American Empire, they point out that right-wing populist conspiracy theorists, blinded by their anti-communism,
fail to see is that what they demonize as the "New World Order" is, ironically, the highest stage of the very capitalist economic system they defend.
Skeptics of New World Order conspiracy theories
accuse its proponents of indulging in the furtive fallacy, a belief that significant facts of history are necessarily sinister; conspiracism, a world view that centrally places conspiracy theories in the unfolding of history, rather than social and economic forces; and fusion
paranoia, a promiscuous absorption of fears from any source whatsoever.
a research professor in psychology and sociology who studies theories of power, writes in a March 2005 essay entitled There Are No Conspiracies:
Partridge, a contributing editor to the global affairs magazine Diplomatic Courier, writes in a December 2008 article entitled One World Government: Conspiracy Theory or Inevitable Future?:
Although some cultural critics see superconspiracy
theories about a New World Order as "postmodern metanarratives" that may be politically
empowering, a way of giving ordinary people a narrative structure with which to question what they see around them, skeptics
argue that conspiracism leads people into cynicism, convoluted thinking, and a tendency to feel it is hopeless even as they denounce the alleged conspirators.
Alexander Zaitchik from the Southern Poverty Law Center wrote a report titled "'Patriot' Paranoia: A Look at the Top Ten Conspiracy Theories",
in which he personally condemns such conspiracies as an effort of the radical right to undermine society.
Concerned that the improvisational
millennialism of most conspiracy theories about a New World Order might motivate lone wolves to engage in leaderless resistance leading to domestic terrorist incidents like
the Oklahoma City bombing, Barkun
Warning of the threat to American democracy posed by right-wing
populist movements led by demagogues who mobilize support for mob rule or
even a fascist revolution by exploiting the fear of conspiracies, Berlet writes:
Hughes, a professor of religion, warns that no religious idea has greater potential for shaping global politics in profoundly negative ways than "the new world order". He writes in a February 2011 article entitled Revelation, Revolutions,
and the Tyrannical New World Order:
of New World Order conspiracy theorists also come from within their own community. Despite believing themselves to be "freedom fighters", many right-wing
populist conspiracy theorists hold views that are incompatible with their professed libertarianism, such as dominionism, white supremacism, and even eliminationism. This
paradox has led Icke, who argues that Christian Patriots are
the only Americans who understand the truth about the New World Order (which he believes is controlled by a race of reptilians known as the "Babylonian Brotherhood"), to reportedly
tell a Christian Patriot group:
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File. By Gary Allen. Seal Beach, CA: '76 Press, 1976. ISBN
up^ Rockefeller, David (2002). Memoirs. Random House. ISBN 0-679-40588-7.
- Jump up^ Fulford, Benjamin (2007). Benjamin Fulford interviews David Rockefeller.
- Jump up^ Shoup, Laurence H.; Minter, William (2004). Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and United States Foreign Policy. Authors Choice Press. ISBN 0-595-32426-6.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Domhoff,
G. William (2005). "There Are No Conspiracies". Retrieved 2009-01-30.
- Jump up^ Wells, H. G. (2006). The Open Conspiracy. Book Tree. ISBN 1-58509-275-4.
- Jump up^ H. G. Wells, British Patriot in Search of a World State
up^ Bailey, Alice A. (1957). "The Externalization
of the Hierarchy". USNISA. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- Jump up^ Cumbey, Constance (1985). The
Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow: The New Age Movement and our Coming Age of Barbarism. Huntington House Publishers; Revised edition. ISBN 0-910311-03-X.
- Jump up^ McKeown, Trevor W. (5 May 2004). "Has Freemasonry become part of the New Age movement?". Anti-masonry Frequently Asked Questions. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.F. & A. M. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- Jump up^ Marrs, Jim (2008). The Rise of the Fourth Reich: The Secret Societies That Threaten to Take Over America. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-124558-9.
- Jump up^ Zeskind, Leonard (2009). Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream.
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10903-6.
- Jump up^ Pipes, Daniel (1 May 2003). "Inverted Totalitarianism".
up^ The Ten Most Popular Conspiracy Theories
- ^ Jump up to:a b Frel, January (1 September 2010). "Inside the Great Reptilian Conspiracy: From Queen Elizabeth to Barack
Obama – They Live!". Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- Jump up^ Collins, Phillip D. (2006). The Ascendancy of the Scientific Dictatorship: An Examination of Epistemic Autocracy, From
the 19th to the 21st Century. BookSurge Publishing. ISBN 1-4196-3932-3.
- Jump up^ Hughes, James (2004). Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future.
Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4198-1.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Holland, Joshua (June 15, 2007). "Debunking the North American Union Conspiracy Theory". Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Jump up^ "Bachmann: No foreign currency". Star Tribune. March 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-03.
- Jump up^ The Right-Wing Echo Chamber In Action: How A Conspiracy Travels From Drudge To Obama, Via Fox News
- ^ Jump up to:a b Partridge, Mark C (December 14, 2008). "One
World Government: Conspiracy Theory or Inevitable Future?". Archived from the original on August 17, 2009.
Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- Jump up^ Levitas, Daniel (January 20, 2004). The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right. St. Martin's
Griffin. ISBN 0-312-32041-8.
- Jump up^ BBC News Special Report (1998-10-05). "Death to the New World Order".
up^ Ron Rosenbaum (2007-10-19). "Who Will Rule Us After the Next 9/11?". Retrieved 2009-04-04.
- Jump up^ Albrecht, Katherine; McIntyre, Liz (2006). The Spychips Threat: Why Christians Should Resist RFID and Electronic Surveillance. Nelson Current. ISBN 1-59555-021-6.
- Jump up^ "Total/Terrorism Information Awareness (TIA): Is It Truly Dead?". Electronic Frontier Foundation
(official website). 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
- Jump up^ Seifert, Jeffrey W. (16 December 2004). "Data
Mining: An Overview" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-10-11.
- Jump up^ Terry Melanson (22 July 2002). "Information
Awareness Office (IAO): How's This for Paranoid?". Illuminati Conspiracy Archive. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- Jump up^ Morris, S. Brent (1 January
2009). "The Eye in the Pyramid". Short Talk Bulletin. Masonic Service Association. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- Jump up^ Baard, Mark (6 June 2006). "RFID: Sign of the (End) Times?". wired.com.
Retrieved 18 December 2006.
- Jump up^ Stanley, Jay (August 2004). "The
Surveillance-Industrial Complex: How the American Government Is Conscripting Businesses and Individuals in the Construction of a Surveillance Society" (PDF). American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Jump up^ Albo, Frank (2007). The Hermetic Code. Winnipeg Free Press. ISBN 0-9682575-3-4.
- Jump up^ Marrs, Jim (2013). Our Occulted History. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-213032-7.
- Jump up^ Laycock, Joseph (6 July 2009). "10 Commandments of the Anti-Christ: Mysterious "Guidestones" Madden Conspiracy Theorists and Christian Fundamentalists". AlterNet. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Jump up^ Henig, Robin Marantz (1997). The People's Health. Joseph Henry Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-309-05492-3.
- Jump up^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-520-20472-7.
- Jump up^ Harrington, Evan (1996). "Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia: Notes from a Mind-Control Conference". Archived from the original on 2008-03-17.
- Jump up^ Ilan, Shrira (11 September 2008). "Paranoia and the roots of conspiracy theories - September 11 and the psychological roots of conspiracy theories". Psychology Today. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Jump up^ Melley, Timothy (December 1999). Empire of Conspiracy: The Culture of Paranoia in Postwar America. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8606-8.
- Jump up^ Rothkopf, David J. (2008). Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making. Farrar, Straus and
Giroux. ISBN 0-374-27210-7.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Party for Socialism and Liberation (1 September 2010). "Daniel Estulin and the phony 'Bilderberg conspiracy'". Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- Jump up^ Lewis, Tyson; Kahn, Richard (2005). "The Reptoid Hypothesis: Utopian
and Dystopian Representational Motifs in David Icke's Alien Conspiracy Theory" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
July 27, 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Jump up^ Berlet, Chip (September 2004). "Interview: G. William Domhoff". Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Jump up^ Boyer, Paul S. (July 27, 2004). "The
Strange World of Conspiracy Theories". Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Jump up^ Holland, Joshua (12 June 2009). "The Terrorist Threat: Right-Wing Radicals and the Eliminationist Mindset". Archived from the original on July 23, 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
The following is a list of non-self-published
non-fiction books that discuss New World Order conspiracy theories.
- Carr, William Guy (1954). Pawns in the Game.
Legion for the Survival of Freedom, an affiliate of the Institute for Historical Review. ISBN 0-911038-29-9.
- Still, William T. (1990). New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies. Huntington House Publishers. ISBN 0-910311-64-1.
Milton William (1991). Behold a Pale Horse. Light Technology Publications. ISBN 0-929385-22-5.
- Kah, Gary H. (1991). En Route to Global Occupation. Huntington House Publishers. ISBN 0-910311-97-8.
- Martin, Malachi (1991). Keys of This Blood: Pope John Paul II Versus Russia and the West for Control of the New World Order. Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-671-74723-1.
- Robertson, Pat (1992). The
New World Order. W Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8499-3394-3.
- Wardner, James (1994) . The Planned Destruction of America. Longwood Communications. ISBN 0-9632190-5-7.
- Keith, Jim (1995). Black
Helicopters over America: Strikeforce for the New World Order. Illuminet Press. ISBN 1-881532-05-4.
- Cuddy, Dennis Laurence (1999) . Secret Records Revealed: The Men, The Money and The Methods Behind the New
World Order. Hearthstone Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 1-57558-031-4.
- Marrs, Jim (2001) . Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History That Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons, and the Great Pyramids. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-093184-1.
- Lina, Jüri (2004). Architects of Deception. Referent Publishing. ASIN B0017YZELI.